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Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks - Tutorial Part1

Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks:

A computer technology is a wonderful technology that have been developed and used by the mankind over the last two centuries. A lot of changes and developments have been taken place in this technology, both in hardware (chip design technology) and software to meet the needs of the mankind. In our daily life we can see a lot of applications by using computer technology. Like desktops, mobile phones, automatic home appliances, etc., but still people not satisfied with these, so they want smarter and user friendly computers which would think like a human being. Therefore people trying to imitate the human brain in the computer technology. In order to do this we should know how our human’s will think and how our brain will work.

Human brain:

A human brain or human nerves system consists of large number (~100 billion) of bio-logical neuron cells and these are connected in a massive complex non-linear network called “Neural Networks”.  The neurons in the neural network have the ability to transmit and receive electrochemical signals. Through this bio-logical neural network the human brain can perform different tasks (like perceptual, recognization, pattern matching, etc.) in very small amount of time. But these tasks are not easily possible to achieve by using today’s high performance computer technology.



Human Brain:
Fig 1: Human Brain


Neuron Cell:
 
Fig 2: Neuron Cell

Real Bio-logical Neuron:

Human brain is big massive complex non-linear network with approximately 100 billion nerve cells called Neurons. Because of these, human’s can think, act, sense, recognize, visualize, etc. Dendrites are the branches of the neuron cell which are used to receive the input signals from other neurons via synaptic input terminals. Each neuron consists of a cell body with nucleus as center, which is treated as computational unit. The received inputs are processed at this computational unit and produce the output signal. The processed output signal is sent via a long branch called AXON. AXON is just like an electrical wire to transmit the output signal to other neuron cells via synaptic output terminals as shown in the figure. Dendrites are shorter branches when compared to AXON.

Artificial Neuron:

Like, bio-logical neuron, people have developed the model for Artificial Neuron (equivalent electrical model for bio-logical neuron). Like, bio-logical neuron, the artificial neuron basically consists of a nerve cell connected to several inputs (like synaptic input terminals through dendrites) and one or more output (like synaptic output terminals through AXON). Each input is connected to the nerve cell with some strength called weight of the input as shown in the figure below.

Artificial Neuron Cell

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