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Display technology specifications | characteristics

In this tutorial, a brief description about the Display technologies Specifications with comparison are provided.

Display technology specifications | characteristics
The important factors or characteristics that are to be considering when evaluating any display technology. The factors play a very key important role while designing and marketing the display.
1.      Power Consumption: It one of the important factors while evaluating the display technologies. It tell that how much power consumed by the display and It is measured in watts.
Display Technology                              : Power Consumption
Personal Computers LCD monitors          :   30Watts – 70Watts
OLED display                                          :   400milliWatts
LCD TV                                                  :   60Watts – 300Watts
PDP                                                        :   330Watts – 700Watts
Digital Light projectors                             :   100Watts– 200Watts
Electronic Paper                                      :   1Watt
LED TV                                                  :  40Watts – 200Watts

2.      Display Area or Display Size:  The size of the display generally measured in inches. It is taken along the diagonal of the display panel. Now a day’s different sizes of displays are available in the market.
Display Technology                            : Size
Personal Computers LCD monitors        :   15inches – 21inches
OLED display                                        :   2.2inches
LCD TV                                                :   15inches – 65inches
PDP                                                      :   32inches – 65inches
Digital Light projectors                           :   30inches – 70inches
Electronic Paper                                     :   6inches
LED TV                                                 :  26inches – 70inches

3.      Viewing Angle:  It is very important factor for all display technology. It is the angle made by the user along the display up to which he can view the picture or video on the display clearly and neatly. If the view angle is good of the display, the user can watch the movie from any corner of room opposite to the display. Otherwise he should fix his face straight to the screen.  Old LCD monitors doesn’t have more viewing angle.

Display Technology                             : Viewing Angle
Personal Computers LCD monitors         :   140/120 – 178/178
OLED display                                         :  170
LCD TV                                                 :   160/140 – 170/170
PDP                                                        :   160
Digital Light projectors                             :   160
Electronic Paper                                       :   >70 degrees all directions
LED TV                                                   :  140

4.      Resolution:  So many definitions that are circulating around the internet about the resolution. But actually it the measure of digital picture quality and it can be expressed as number of pixels count in horizontal and vertical dimension. If the pixel count is more the quality and clarity of picture will be more.
For example: If the display resolution is given as 800x600, it means width is 800 pixels and height is 600 pixels.

Display Technology                             :  Resolution
Personal Computers LCD monitors        :  1024x768 – 1600x1200
OLED display                                        :  520x218
LCD TV                                                :  640x480 -- 1920x1080
PDP                                                      :  852x480 – 1366 x 768
Digital Light projectors                           :  1280x720 – 1920x1080
Electronic Paper                                    :  800x600
LED TV                                                :  1366x768 – 1920x1080

5.   Colors: Each display technology is able to produce wide variety of colors, because each color pixel contains three primary colors red, blue and green.  The intensity of these colors can be varied from 0 – 2555 values. Therefore with their combination, the pixel may produce 256*256*256 – 16.8 million colors. Now a day, all these display technologies are comes with nearly 16.8 million colors, except the Electronic Paper. Electronic Paper support only grayscale.

6.     Brightness (cd/m2):  It the amount light emitted or reflected by the object, more it emitted the brighter it will be. In other words, it is the intensity of energy of the light source and it can be measured in candela per square meter (cd/m2).

Display Technology                              :  Brightness
Personal Computers LCD monitors          :  250cd/m2 – 300cd/m2
OLED display                                         :  120cd/m2
LCD TV                                                 :  350cd/m2 – 500cd/m2
PDP                                                       :  700cd/m2 – 1000cd/m2
Digital Light projectors                            :  400cd/m2 – 800cd/m2
Electronic Paper                                     :  100cd/m2
LED TV                                                 :  no data

7.      Response Time: It is the amount of time taken by the display to change its pixel’s color from one value to another. In monochrome displays, the change will be from full black to full white (rise time) and then back to full white (fall time). If the response time is low the color transition is high, therefore it is possible to produce sharp images. If the response time is long blurriness and ghost images can be seen in the movies or any videos.

Display Technology                            :  Response Time
Personal Computers LCD monitors        :  4ns -- 25ns
OLED display                                        :  6us
LCD TV                                                :  8ms – 30ms
PDP                                                      :  13ms
Digital Light projectors                           :  8us
Electronic Paper                                    :  300ms
LED TV                                                : 4ms

8.      Dot Pitch (mm): It is the distance between two pixels from its centers and it is measure in millimeters. It is also term as Pixel pitch or simply pitch. If the dot pitch is small then the screen will have shorter minimum viewing distance and the number of pixels required also increases which in turn increase the cost of the display.

Display Technology                             :  Dot Pitch
Personal Computers LCD monitors        :  0.264mm – 0.297mm
OLED display                                        :  0.172mm
LCD TV                                                :  0.24mm – 0.75mm
PDP                                                      :  1.02mm – 1.55mm
Digital Light projectors                           :  0.4mm
Electronic Paper                                    :  0.164mm
LED TV                                                :  no data

9.    Lifespan: It is the maximum expected amount of time (hours or years) that your display remains with any problems.
Display Technology                           :  lifespan
Personal Computers LCD monitors       :  45,000hrs – 50,000hrs
OLED display                                      :  2,000hrs
LCD TV                                              :  50,000hrs – 60,000hrs
PDP                                                    :  20,000hrs – 60,000hrs
Digital Light projectors                        :  30,000hrs – 80,000hrs
Electronic Paper                                  :  10,000hrs
LED TV                                             :  100000hrs

10. Display Aspect ratio: It is the ratio of display width and its height. it is expressed in two numbers separated by a colon. 4:3, 5:4, 16:10, 16:9 are the common aspect ratio for the display.

11.  Refresh Rate: The number of frames that can be loaded on to the display in a given time is called refresh rate. If the refresh rate is less flickering will occur. According to the persistence of vision of human, if the frame rate is less than 16 frames per second then human mind can see flashing images called flickering.

Some video games don’t play in your computer and it is asking to insert graphic cards. If you still try to install and play, the clarity of the game will be very poor. That means your computer is not able provide refresh rate which is minimum necessity for the game. If you add the graphic card to your pc then it will produce required frame rate for the game.
Sometime refresh rate can be expressed in frequency like 60Hz, 120Hz, etc.,

Display Technology                             :  Refresh Rate
Personal Computers LCD monitors        :  100-200Hz
OLED display                                        :  2,000hrs
LCD TV                                                :  600Hz
PDP                                                      :  20,000hrs – 60,000hrs
Digital Light projectors                           :  30,000hrs – 80,000hrs
Electronic Paper                                    :  10,000hrs
LED TV                                                : 60Hz – 240Hz

12. Contrast ratio: It is the ratio of intensity of complete bright to complete dark of the display. The contrast ratio is 20:1 means the brightness of a brightest pixel is twenty time greater that the darker one. If the user is viewing from long display then more contrast ratio is required to see the picture.

13.  Gamma Correction:  A pixel in certain Image has intensity level equal to y and is send to computer monitor. It will display that pixel with an intensity level equal to y^2.5. This is because range of voltages sent to the monitor is between 0 and 1, this means that the intensity level displayed will be less than what you wanted it to be.(0.3^2.5 = ). Then the monitors are said to be gamma of 2.5.
Therefore, the input image data should undergo a gamma correction value of 1/2.5 before it is sent to the monitor. Then the output of the monitor is
Y^(2.5*gama correction value) = y^(2.5 * (1/2.5)) = Y (original image data).


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